Scientific Resources

Full Articles:

1. Silverman, Michael D. DMD. Oral Sedation Dentistry: A Safe and Effective Way to Reduce Visit Anxiety. Dear Doctor - Dentistry & Oral Health. Vol. 2. Issue 2.

2. Goodchild, Jason H. DMD; Anthony S. Feck, DMD, FDOCS; Michael D. Silverman, DMD, DICOI, DDOCS. Anxiolysis in General Dental Practice.

3. AGD Enteral Conscious Sedation Conference. Academy of General Dentistry GD White Paper on Enteral Conscious Sedation. General Dentistry. September-October 2006. 301.304.

4. Silverman, Michael D. DMD. Beyond Valiumâ„¢ An Introduction to Oral Sedation Dentistry.

5. Silverman, Michael D. DMD. Panic to Profit I. Dent Econ. Aug 2003.

6. Silverman, Michael D. DMD. Panic to Profit II. Dent Econ. Sept 2003.

7. Silverman, Michael D. DMD. Panic to Profit III. Dent Econ. Oct 2003.

8. Silverman, Michael D. DMD. Six Steps to Painless and Profitable Dentistry. Dent Econ. Apr 2008.


9. Moller, Hans-Jurgen MD. Effectiveness and Safety of Benzodiazepines. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Vol. 19, No. 6, Suppl 2, 2S-12S.

10. Gordon, S. M. (2007). Evidence of safety for individualized dosing of enteral sedation. General Dentistry. 2007; 55(5):410-5 (ISSN: 0363-6771).

11. Kronbach, Thomas; Mathys, Daniel; Umeno, Morio; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Meyer, Urs A. Oxidation of Midazolam and Triazolam by Human Liver Cytochrome P450IIIA4. Molecular Pharmacology. 36:89-96.

12. Berthold, Charles DDS, MS; Schneider, Adam; Dionne, RA DDS, PhD. Using Triazolam to Reduce Dental Anxiety. JADA. Vol. 124. November 1993. Pg. 58-64.

13. Baker, Karen A. RPh, MS. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Selected Implants and Devices. Journal of the California Dental Association 2000.

14. Little JW ; Falace DA ; Miller CS ; Rhodus NL. Antibiotic prophylaxis in dentistry: an update. Gen Dent. 2008; 56(1):20-8.

15. Goodchild, Jason H. DMD; Dickinson, Scott C. DMD. Anxiolysis in dental practice: a report of three cases. General Dentistry. May-June 2004. Pg. 264-269.

16. Mazaheri R ; Eshghi A ; Bashardoost N ; Kavyani N. Assessment of intranasal midazolam administration with a dose of 0.5 mg/kg in behavior management of uncooperative children. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2008; 32(2):95-9 (ISSN: 1053-4628).

17. Alberto Alonso-Fernández, PhD; Francisco García-Río, PhD; Miguel A. Racionero, PhD; José M. Pino, PhD; Fernando Ortuño, MD; Isabel Martínez, MD; José Villamor, PhD . Cardiac Rhythm Disturbances and ST-Segment Depression Episodes in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome and Its Mechanisms. CHEST. 2005;127(1):15-22.

18. Weaver, Christopher MD; Hauter, William MD; Brizendine, Edward MS; Cordell, William MD. Emergency Department Procedural Sedation with Propofol: Is it Safe? J Emerg Med. 2007;33(4):355-361.

19. Gomes, Eva Rebelo; Demoly, Pascal. Epidemiology of Hypersensitivity Drug Reactions. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;5(4):309-316.

20. Harkavy, J., Kleinknecht, R.A., McGlynn, F.D., & Thorndike, R.M. (1984). Factor analysis of the dental fear survey with cross-validation. J Am Dent Assoc. 108(1), 59-61.

21. Holzman, Robert S MD; Cullen, David J MD, MS; Eichhorn, John H MD; Philip, James H MD. Guidelines for Sedation by Nonanesthesiologists during Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures. Clin Anesth. Vol 6, July/August 1994. 265-266.

22. Goodchild, J DMD, Donaldson, M PharmD. Hallucinations and Delirium in the Dental Office Following Triazolam Administration. Anesth Prog. 52:17–20 2005.

23. Masica, Andrew L. MD; Mayo, Gail RN; Wilkinson, Grant R. PhD, DSc. In vivo comparison of constitutive cytochrome P450 3A activity assessed by alprazolam, triazolam, and midazolam. Clin Pharm & Therap. 2004;76(4):341-9.

24. Jackson, Douglass L. DMD, MS, PhD; Johnson, Barton S DDS MS. Inhalational and enteral conscious sedation for the adult dental patient. The Dental Clinics of North America . Vol 46 (2002) 781-802.

25. Mangrella M ; Motola G ; Russo F ; Mazzeo F ; Falcone G ; D'Alessio O ; Piucci B ; Rossi F. Intensive hospital monitoring of adverse reactions to benzodiazepines and neuroleptic agents. Minerva Med. 1998; 89(7-8):293-300 (ISSN: 0026-4806).

26. Kupietzky A, Holan G, Shapira J. Intranasal midazolam better at effecting amnesia after sedation than oral hydroxyzine: a pilot study. Pediatr Dent. 1996 Jan-Feb;18(1):32-4. [PMID: 8668567].

27. Lacoste L; Bouquet S; Ingrand P; Caritez JC; Carretier M; Debaene B. Intranasal midazolam in piglets: pharmacodynamics (0.2 vs 0.4 mg/kg) and pharmacokinetics (0.4 mg/kg) with bioavailability determination. Lab Anim. 2000; 34(1):29-35 (ISSN: 0023-6772).

28. Dale O; Nilsen T; Loftsson T; Hjorth Tønnesen H; Klepstad P; Kaasa S; Holand T; Djupesland PG. Intranasal midazolam: a comparison of two delivery devices in human volunteers. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006; 58(10):1311-8 (ISSN: 0022-3573).

29. Gudmundsdottir H ; Sigurjonsdottir JF ; Masson M ; Fjalldal O ; Stefansson E ; Loftsson T. Intranasal administration of midazolam in a cyclodextrin based formulation: bioavailability and clinical evaluation in humans. Pharmazie. 2001; 56(12):963-6 (ISSN: 0031-7144).

30. Lloyd CJ ; Alredy T ; Lowry JC. Intranasal midazolam as an alternative to general anaesthesia in the management of children with oral and maxillofacial trauma. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000; 38(6):593-595 (ISSN: 0266-4356).

31. Lloyd CJ; Alredy T; Lowry JC. Management of children with oral and maxillofacial trauma. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000; 38(6):593-595 (ISSN: 0266-4356).

32. Emery, Robert W. DDS; Guttenberg, Steven A DDS. Management priorities and treatment strategies for medical emergencies in the dental office. Dent Clin N Am. Vol. 43, No. 3. 1999. 401-419.

33. Goodchild, Jason H DMD; Donaldson, Mark PharmD. Maximum cumulative doses of sedation medications for in-office use. General Dentistry. March-April 2007. 143-149.

34. Olkkola KT ; Ahonen J. Midazolam and other benzodiazepines. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008; (182):335-60 (ISSN: 0171-2004).

35. Scheepers M; Scheepers B; Clough P. Midazolam via the intranasal route: an effective rescue medication for severe epilepsy in adults with learning disability. Seizure. 1998; 7(6):509-12 (ISSN: 1059-1311).

36. Kershaw, Sarah. My Root Canal? It's a Blur. The New York Times. March 6, 2008.

37. Newton CR; White PS. Nasal manipulation with intravenous sedation. Is it an acceptable and effective treatment? Rhinology. 1998; 36(3):114-6 (ISSN: 0300-0729).

38. Wilson MT ; Macleod S ; O'Regan ME. Nasal/buccal midazolam use in the community. Arch Dis Child. 2004; 89(1):50-1 (ISSN: 1468-2044).

39. Glick, Michael, DMD. New Guidelines for Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. JADA. Vol. 129. Nov. 1998. 1588-1594.

40. Ray, Wayne A. Ph.D.; Murray, Katherine T. M.D.; Meredith, Sarah M.B., B.S.; Narasimhulu, Sukumar Suguna M.B., B.S., M.P.H.; Hall, Kathi M.S.; Stein, C. Michael M.B., Ch.B. Oral Erythromycin and the Risk of Sudden Death from Cardiac Causes. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:1089-96.

41. Donaldson, Mark BScPhm, RPh, PhrmD; Gizzarelli, Gino BScPhm, DDS, MSc; Chanpong, Brian DDS, MSc. Oral Sedation: a primer on anxiolysis for the Adult Patient. Anest Prog. 54: 118-129 2007.

42. Flanagan, Dennis DDS, MAGD, ABGD. Oral Triazolam Sedation in Implant Dentistry. Journal of Oral Implantology. Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 93–97.

43. Bamias, Aristotle; Kstritis, Efstathios; Bamia, Christina; Moulopoulos, Lia A.; Melakopoulos, Ioannis; Bozas, George; Koutsoukou, Vassiliki; Gika, Dimitra; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios; Papdimitrious, Christos; Terpos, Evagelos; Dimopoulos, Meletios A. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Cancer After Treatment With Bisphosphonates: Incidence and Risk Factors. J Clin Oncology. Vol 23 (34). Dec 2005. 8580-8587.

44. Friedlander AH ; Marder SR ; Sung EC ; Child JS. Panic disorder: psychopathology, medical management and dental implications. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004; 135(6):771-8; quiz 796-7 (ISSN: 0002-8177).

45. Jackson, Douglass L. DMD, MS, PhD; Milgrom, Peter DDS; Heacox, Gail A. RDH, BS; Kharasch, Evan D. MD, PhD [S]. Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Effects of Multidose Sublingual Triazolam in Healthy Volunteers. J Clin Psychopharmacology. 26(1):4-8, February 2006.

46. Wermeling DP ; Record KA ; Kelly TH ; Archer SM ; Clinch T ; Rudy AC. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a new intranasal midazolam formulation in healthy volunteers. Anesth Analg. 2006; 103(2):344-9, (ISSN: 1526-7598).

47. Derry CL ; Kroboth PD ; Pittenger AL ; Kroboth FJ ; Corey SE ; Smith RB. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of triazolam after two intermittent doses in obese and normal-weight men. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995; 15(3):197-205 (ISSN: 0271-0749).

48. Garzone, Pamela D; Kroboth, Patricia. Pharmacokinetics of the newer benzodiazepines. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 1989;16:337-364 (1989).

49. Burstein AH ; Modica R ; Hatton M ; Forrest A ; Gengo FM. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam after intranasal administration. J Clin Pharmacol. 1997; 37(8):711-8 (ISSN: 0091-2700).

50. Taljaard A, Diedericks J, Venter L, Kruger P, Joubert G. Premedication from a patient perspective--morphine, midazolam, hydroxyzine and placebo compared. S Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;92(9):711-2. [PMID: 12382354]

51. Karabas LV ; Elibol O ; Yüksel N ; Gürkan Y ; Altintas O ; Caglar Y. Probing for nasolacrimal duct obstruction using intranasal midazolam sedation as an alternative to general anesthesia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2006; 43(2):79-84; quiz 100-1 (ISSN: 0191-3913).

52. Feck, Anthony S. DMD; Goodchild, Jason H DMD. Rehabilitation of a fearful dental patient with oral sedation: Utilizing the incremental oral administration technique. General Dentistry. January-February 2005; 22-26.

53. Abrams R; Morrison JE; Villasenor A; Hencmann D; Da Fonseca M; Mueller W. Safety and effectiveness of intranasal administration of sedative medications (ketamine, midazolam, or sufentanil) for urgent brief pediatric dental procedures. Anesth Prog. 1993; 40(3):63-6 (ISSN: 0003-3006).

54. Greenberg, Barbara L MSc, PhD; Click, Michael DMD; Goodchild, Jason DMD; Duda, Peter W. DMD; Conte, Nicholas R DMD; Conte, Michael DMD, MPH. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors in a dental setting. JADA. Vol. 138. June 2007.

55. Goodchild, Jason H DMD; Markus, Steve DMD. Sedation as an Adjunct to Oral Rehabilitation in a Fearful Patient. Contemporary Esthetics and Restorative Practice. December 2003. 2-10.

56. Shapira J, Holan G, Botzer E, Kupietzky A, Tal E, Fuks AB. The effectiveness of midazolam and hydroxyzine as sedative agents for young pediatric dental patients. ASDC J Dent Child. 1996 Nov-Dec;63(6):421-5.

57. Amy L Baxter, MD. Topical Anesthetics in Children. CME. Published Feb. 19, 2008.

58. Quarnstrom, Fred W. DDS, FAGD; Donaldson, Mark B.Sc. (Pharm), PharmD. Triazolam use in the dental setting: a report of 270 uses over 15 years. General Dentistry. November-December 2004. pg. 434-439.

59. Flanagan, Dennis DDS, MAGD, ABGD. Understanding the grapefruit-drug interaction. General Dentistry. July/Aug 2005. 282-285.

60. Uzun S ; Dal D. Unexpected complications of intranasal midazolam premedication. Paediatr Anaesth. 2007; 17(8):817-8 (ISSN: 1155-5645).

61. Zanette G ; Facco E ; Manani G. The use of intranasal midazolam in the treatment of paediatric dental patients. Anaesthesia. 2008; 63(8):887 (ISSN: 1365-2044).

62. Ganzberg, S Dietrich, T Valerin, M Beck, FM. Zaleplon (Sonata) Oral Sedation for Outpatient Third Molar Extraction Surgery. Anesthesia Progress. Volume 52, Number 4 December 2005 pages 128-131.

63. Goodchild, Jason H, Glick, Michael. A different approach to medical risk assessment. Endodontic Topics. 2003; 4, 1-8.

64. Sheroan MM, Dilley DC, Lucas WJ, Vann WF. A prospective study of 2 sedation regimens in children: chloral hydrate, meperidine, and hydroxyzine versus midazolam, meperidine, and hydroxyzine. Anesth Prog. 2006; Fall;53(3):83-90.

65. Ferguson, Kathleen A. BSc, MD, FCCP; Takasht, Ono DDS, PhD; Lowe, Alan A. DMD, PhD; Keenan, Sean P. MD; Fleetham, John A. MD. A Randomized Crossover Study of an Oral Appliance vs. Nasal-Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in the Treatment of Mild-Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Chest. Vol 109(5). May 1996. 1269-1275.

66. Roth T ; Roehrs TA. A review of the safety profiles of benzodiazepine hypnotics. J Clin Psychiatry. 1991; 52 Suppl:38-41 (ISSN: 0160-6689).

67. Wilson, KE; Welbury RR; Girdler, NM. A study of the effectiveness of oral midazolam sedation for orthodontic extraction of permanent teeth in children: a prospective, randomised, controlled, crossover trial. British Dental Journal. Vol. 192, No. 8, 457.

68. Kroboth, Patricia D.; Bertz, Richard J.; Smith, Randall B. Acute Tolerance to Triazolam During Continuous and Step Infusion: Estimate of the Effect Offrate Constant. Journ of Pharm and Exp Thera. 1993. Vol 263(3):1047-1055.

69. Longo, Lance P MD. Addiction Part I: Benzodiazepine--side effects, abuse risk, and alternatives. American Family Physician. April 2000. Vol 61 (7).

70. Gazmuri, Raul J. MD. Airway Management during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: a Shifting Paradigm. Critical Care Medicine. Jan. 1999. Vol 27 (1).

71. McIlwain M ; Primosch R ; Bimstein E. Allergic reaction to intranasal midazolam HCl: a case report. Pediatr Dent. 2004; 26(4):359-61 (ISSN: 0164-1263).

72. Deegan, Alan E DDS, MSD. Anesthesia Morbidity and Mortality, 1988-1999 Claims Statistics from AAMOS National Insurance Company. Anest Prog. 48:89-92 2001.

73. ADA, American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons. Advisory Statement: Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Dental Patients with Total Joint Replacement. JADA. Vol 128, July 1997. 1004-1008.

74. Tong, Darryl C DBS, MDS; Rothwell, Bruce R DMD, MSD. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Dentistry: A Review and Practical Recommendations. JADA. Vol 131, March 200. 366-374.

75. Dionne, R.A., Gordon, S.M., McCullagh, L.M., & Phero, J.C. (1998). Assessing the need for anesthesia and sedation in the general population. JADA. 129, 167-173.

76. Fuks AB ; Kaufman E ; Ram D ; Hovav S ; Shapira. Assessment of two doses of intranasal midazolam for sedation of young pediatric dental patients. Pediatr Dent. 1994; 16(4):301-5 (ISSN: 0164-1263).

77. Karst M; Winterhalter M; Münte S; Francki B; Hondronikos A; Eckardt A; Hoy L; Buhck H; Bernateck M; Fink M. Auricular acupuncture for dental anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 2007; 104(2):295-300 (ISSN: 1526-7598).

78. Dionne, R.A., DDS, PhD; Yagiela, John A. DDS, PhD; Cote, Charles J, MD; Donaldson, Mark PharmD; Edwards, Michael DMD; Greenblatt, David J, MD; Haas, Daniel DDS, PhD; Maviya, Shobha, MD; Milgrom, Peter DDS; Moore, Paul A. DMD, PhD, MPH; Shampaine, Guy DDS; Balancing efficacy and safety in the use of oral sedation in dental outpatients. JADA. 2006;137;502-513.

79. Yim, L. (2006). Belonephobia: A fear of needles. Aust Fam Physician. 35(8), 623-624.

80. Goodchild, Jason H DMD; Donaldson, Mark PharmD. Calculating and justifying total anxiolytic doses of medications for in-office use. General Dentistry. January-February 2006. 54-57.

81. Steentoft, A; Worm, K. Cases of fatal triazolam poisoning. Journal of the Forensic Science Society. 1993; 33: 45-48.

82. Vesal N; Zare P. Clinical evaluation of intranasal benzodiazepines, alpha-agonists and their antagonists in canaries. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2006; 33(3):143-8 (ISSN: 1467-2987).

83. Oliver FM ; Sweatman TW ; Unkel JH ; Kahn MA ; Randolph MM ; Arheart KL ; Mandrell TD Comparative pharmacokinetics of submucosal vs. intravenous flumazenil (Romazicon) in an animal model. Pediatr Dent. 2000; 22(6):489-93 (ISSN: 0164-1263).

84. Dionne, R.A., DDS, PhD; Yagiela, John A. DDS, PhD; Moore, Paul A. DMD, PhD, MPH; Gonty, Arthur DDS; Zuniga, John DMD, PhD; Beirne, O. Ross DDS. Comparing efficacy and safety of four intravenous sedation regimens in dental out patients. JADA. Vol 132, June 2001. 740-752.

85. Dallman JA ; Ignelzi MA ; Briskie DM. Comparing the safety, efficacy and recovery of intranasal midazolam vs. oral chloral hydrate and promethazine. Pediatr Dent. 2001; 23(5):424-30 (ISSN: 0164-1263).

86. Homes, James F DMD; Panacek, Edward A. MD; Sakles, John C MD; Brofeldt, Bo Tomas MD. Comparison of 2 Cricothyrotomy Techniques: Standard Method Versus Rapid 4-step Technique. Annals of Emerg Med. Vol 32 (4), Oct 1998.

87. Kaufman, Eliezar DMD; Hargreaves, Kenneth M. DDS, PhD; Dionne, RA DDS, PhD. Comparison of Oral Triazolam and nitrous with placebo and intravenous diazepam for outpatient medication. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. Vol. 75, No. 2, Pg.156-164.

88. Heniff, Melanie S. MD; Moore, Gregory P. MD; Trout, Anne LAT; Cordell, William H. MD; Nelson, David R. MS. Comparison of Routes of Flumazenil Administration to Reverse Midazolam Induced Respiratory Depression in a Canine Model. Academic Emerg Med. Vol 4 (12), Dec 1997. 1115-1118.

89. Berthold, Charles DDS, MS; Dionne, RA DDS, PhD; Corey, Sharon E PhD. Comparison of sublingually and orally administered triazolam. Oral Surgery. Vol 84, No. 2 August 1997. 119-124.

90. Torres-Pérez J, Tapia-García I, Rosales-Berber MA, Hernández-Sierra JF, Pozos-Guillen Ade J. Comparison of three conscious sedation regimens for pediatric dental patients. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2007 Spring; 31(3): 183-6. [PMID: 17550044]

91. Kaufman E ; Davidson E ; Sheinkman Z ; Magora F. Comparison between intranasal and intravenous midazolam sedation (with or without patient control) in a dental phobia clinic. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1994; 52(8):840-3; discussion 844 (ISSN: 0278-2391).

92. Jackson, Douglass L. DMD, MS, PhD; Johnson, Barton S DDS MS. Conscious sedation for dentistry: risk management and patient selection. The Dental Clinics of North America. 46 (2002) 767-780.

93. Yasny JS ; Asgari A. Considerations for the use of enteral sedation in pediatric dentistry. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2008; 32(2):85-93 (ISSN: 1053-4628).

94. Chern, Chii-Hwa MD; Chern, Tzyh-Lih MD; Wang, Lee-Min MD; Hu, Sheng-Chuan MD; Deng, Jou-Fan MD; Lee, Chen-Hsen MD. Continuous Flumazenil Infusion in Preventing Complications Arising from Severe Benzodiazepine Intoxication. Am Journ of Emerg Med. Vol 16 93) May 1998.

95. Kudo, K; Imamura, T.; Jitsufuchi, N; Zhang, XX; Tokunaga, H; Nagata, T. Death Attributed to the Toxic Interaction of Triazolam Amitriptyline and Other Psychotropic Drugs. Forensic Science International. 86(1997)35-41.

96. Houpt. Death following oral sedation. Journal of dentistry for children. Vol 55(2) 1988. 123.

97. Coplans, MP. MB, BS, FFARCS; Curson, I. MDS, FDS. Deaths Associated with Dentistry and Dental Disease 1980-1989. Anesthesia .1999. Vol 48. 435-438.

98. Arheart, K.L., Caban-Martinez, A.J., Chung-Bridges, K., Fleming, L.E., Leblanc, W.G., & Lee, D.J., Pitman, T. (2007). Dental care access and unmet dental care needs among US workers: The National Health Interview Survey, 1997-2003. JADA. 138(2), 227-230.

99. Glick, Michael DDS. Dental care for patients with high blood pressure and hypertension. JADA. Vol. 129, Nov. 1998. 1594-1600.

100. DeRossi, Scott S. DMD; Glick, Michael DMD. Dental Considerations for the Patient with Renal Disease Receiving Hemodialysis. JADA. Vol 127, Feb 1996. 211-220.

101. Gordon, Sharon M DDS MPH; Dionne, RA DDS PhD; Snyder, James DDS. Dental fear and anxiety as a barrier to accessing oral health care among patients with special health care needs. Journal of Special Care in Dentistry. Vol. 18. No. 2, 1998, March/April.

102. Busschots, Ginette V.; Milzman, Bruce I. DDS. Dental Patients with Neurologic and Psychiatric Concerns. Dental Clinics of North America. Vol 43(3). July 1999. 471-783.

103. Roache JD ; Griffiths RR. Diazepam and triazolam self-administration in sedative abusers: concordance of subject ratings, performance and drug self-administration. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 99(3):309-15 (ISSN: 0033-3158).

104. Greenblatt, David J.; Harmatz, Jerald S.; Gouthro, Terry A.; Locke, Jenifer; Shader, Richard I. Distinguishing a benzodiazepine agonist from a nonagonist anxiolytic (buspirone) by electronencephalography: Kinetic-dynamic studies. Clin Pharm & Therap. Vol 56(1) 100-112.

105. Levine, Barry; Grieshaber, Alison; Pestraner, Joseph; Moore, Karla A.; Snialek, John E. Distribution of Triazolam and α-Hydroxytriazolam in a Fatal Intoxication Case. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. Vol 26 Jan/Feb 2002. 52-54.

106. Lilja JJ; Kivisto KT; Backman JT; Neuvonen PJ . Effect of grapefruit juice dose on grapefruit juice-triazolam interaction: repeated consumption prolongs triazolam half-life. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Aug;56(5):411-5.

107. Robertson P; Hellriegel ET; Arora S; Nelson M . Effect of modafinil on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol and triazolam in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Jan;71(1):46-56.

108. Yamashiro M. Effectiveness of conscious sedation with a single benzodiazepine compared with a combination of drugs. Anesth Prog. 1995; 42(3-4):103-6 (ISSN: 0003-3006).

109. Gross, Jeffrey B MD; Blouin, Robert T MD; Zandsberg, Shaul MD; Conard, Pattilyn F MA, CRNA; Haussler, Jurgen MD. Effects of Flumazenil on ventilatory drive during sedation with midazolam and alfentanil. MD Consult -Journal Article. Vol. 85, No. 4. October 1996.

110. Milgrom, Peter DDS; Quarnstrom, Fred DDS; Longley, Alison PhD; Libed, Eliza DDS. The Efficacy and Memory Effects of Oral Triazolam Premedication in Highly Anxious Dental Patients. Anesthesia Progress. 41:70-76, 1994.

111. Berthold, Charles DDS, MS. Enteral Sedation: safety, efficacy, and controversy. Compendium. May 2007;28(5):264-272.

112. Vanakoski, J. Grapefruit juice does not enhance the effects of midazolam and triazolam in man. Eur J Clin Pharmaco.1996; 50(6):501-8.

113. Ho PC, Chalcroft SC, Coville PF, Wanwimolruk S. Grapefruit Juice and Drug Interactions. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1999; Jul;55(5):393-8.

114. Yagiela, John DDS PhD. Health Hazards and Nitrous Oxide a Time for Reappraisal. Anesth Prog. 38:1-11. 1991.

115. Moore, Paul A. DMD, PhD, MPH. Administering Sedation: the Controversy Continues. Gen Dent. July/Aug 2007. 273-274.

116. Yagiela, John DDS PhD. Making Patients Safe and Comfortable for a Lifetime of Dentistry: Frontiers in Office-Based Sedation. Journal of Dental Education. Vol. 65, No. 12, (8).

117. Rodricks, Michael B. MD; Deutschman, Clifford S. MS, MD, FCCM. Managing the Airway in the Critically Ill Patient. Crictical Care Clinics. Vol 16(3) July 2000.

118. Vaughan, Gloria G. DDS; Jarnigan, Teri K. DDS; Montgomery, Michael T. DDS. Morbidity and Mortality Associated with the Pharmacologic Management of Pain and Anxiety. Compen Contin Educ Dent. Vol 14(6): 752-763.

119. Hulland, Sarah A. DDS, Msa, FRCD(C); Freilich, Marshall, M. DDS, Msa, FRCD(C): Sander, Geroge K.B. MD, DDS, FRCD(C), RECS(C), FACS. Nitrous oxide - oxygen or oral midazolam for pediatric sedation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path. Vol 93(6). June 2002. 643-646.

120. Stopperich, Phil, etal. Oral triazolam pretreatment for intravenous sedation. Anesthesia Prog. Vol 40 (4) 1993. 117-21.

121. Robin C ; Trieger N. Paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines in intravenous sedation: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Anesth Prog. 2002; 49(4):128-32 (ISSN: 0003-3006).

122. Bennett, Jeffrey DMD; McDonald, Thomas DMD, MD; Lieblich, Stuart DMD; Piecuch, Joseph DMD, MD. Perioperative rehydration in ambulatory anesthesia for dentoalveolar surgery. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path. Vol 88(3) Sept 1999. 279-284.

123. Kroboth, Patricia D.; Smith, Randall B. PhD; Stoehr, Pharm D; Juhl, Randy P. PhD. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of the benzodiazepine-oral contraceptive interaction. Clin Pharmacol Ther. Dec 1985. Vol 38(5):525-532.

124. Tweedy, Christine M. DDS, MSD; Milgrom, Peter DDS; Kharasch, Evan D. MD, PhD; Kaakko, Tarja DDS; Spieker, Martha MD; Coldwell, Susan E. PhD. Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Effects of Sublingual Triazolam in Pediatric Dental Patients. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Vol 21 (3) June 2001. 268-272.

125. Karl, Helen W. MD; Milgrom, Peter DDS; Domoto, Peter DDS; Kharasch, Evan DMD, PhD; Coldwell, Susan E. PhD; Weinstein, Philip Phd; Leroux, Brian PhD; Swamura, Kyoko DS; Mautz, Douglas PhD. Pharmacokinetics of Oral Triazolam in Children. J Clin Psychopharmacol. Vol 17(3). June 1997. 169-172.

126. Dehlin, O; Gjornson, G; Borjesson, L; Abrahamsson, L; Smith, RB. Pharmacokinetics of Triazolam in Geriatric Patients. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. (1983) 25:91-94.

127. Wilson S. Pharmacologic behavior management for pediatric dental treatment. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2000; 47(5):1159-75 (ISSN: 0031-3955).

128. Dionne, R. Pharmacologic Considerations in the training of dentists in anesthesia. Anes Prog. Vol 36 (3) 1989. p. 113-6.

129. Scheepers Louis D. BSC, MBBCH, FRCPC; Montgomery, Carolyne J. MD, FRCPC; Kinahan, Anna M. MD. Plasma concentrations of flumazenil following intranasal administration in children. Can J Anesth.2000. 47:2. 120-124.

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